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  • Public defence: 2024-05-24 09:15 C3-003, Eskilstuna
    Carnesten, Hillewi
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Nurses' caring struggle: Stress in caring within hospital emergency care during the COVID-19 pandemic2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Nurses took a frontline caregiving role during the COVID-19 pandemic in pervasively altered conditions in Swedish hospital emergency healthcare. Little is known about nurses’ experiences of the stress they were subjected to. In this thesis, findings from individual in-depth interviews with both newly graduated registered nurses (NGRNs) and experienced nurses (ERNs), as well as a web-based questionnaire, illuminate nurses’ lived experiences of stress in caring during the COVID-19 pandemic. Three studies employed qualitative methods (I, II, IV), and one a mixed methods approach (III). Study I aimed to describe NGRNs’ experiences of encountering stress in EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings illuminate how dedicated NGRNs struggle to develop into the nurse they want to be whilst battling extraordinary situations and conflicting emotions. Loss of control and experiences of shortcomings caused by work overload in combination with understaffing force NGRNs into an independent role at an early point in their career. Study II aimed to illuminate the meaning of NGRNs' experiences of caring for patients in EDs during the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings comprise caring being bestowed through spatial, emotional, and temporal barriers. NGRNs want to be present, relieve suffering yet describe caring during the pandemic as being a hidden activity, less acknowledged and left to the recognition of each nurse. Study III aimed to explore healthcare workers’ (HCWs’) experiences of the changed caring reality of the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings disclose traumatic experiences and having to sacrifice moral values and harbour dilemmas in isolation. Experiencing stress was significantly correlated to lower sense of coherence (SOC). Study IV aimed to explore nurses’ lived experiences of stress in the transformed caring reality during the COVID-19 pandemic. The interpreted meaning comprises the dilemma of enduring the unbearable, meaning having to silence one’s inner ethical, caring compass. In conclusion, stress in caring during the COVID-19 pandemic from a nurse perspective, can be understood as a caring struggle entailing bodily, knowledge, and ethical stress in a search for meaning that might be found in togetherness with patients, with colleagues, with dear ones and in nature.

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  • Public defence: 2024-06-07 13:15 Omega, Västerås
    Moradi, Fereidoun
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Automated Vulnerability Discovery and Attack Detection Framework for Cyber-Physical Systems2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of physical assets with cyber computational entities, known as Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS), is becoming more common. These systems are used in various sectors such as manufacturing, energy production, and transportation. However, they may contain vulnerabilities that can be exploited and compromise the proper functioning of the systems. Formal methods can provide confidence in the correctness of the system. These methods can help system designers to discover vulnerabilities and ensure the system meets its intended behavior and properties.

    This thesis presents a framework called CRYSTAL for analyzing the security of CPS both at the design and runtime with the following contributions: 1) We build a Timed Rebeca model augmented with attack scenarios to identify potential vulnerabilities during the design phase. We identify CPS-related attacks reported in the literature and use STRIDE threat modeling as a guideline to put them into two categories: attacks on communication and attacks on components. We augment our model with actors representing attackers that jeopardize the communication and compromised components with possible malfunctions. Subsequently, we analyze the security of the CPS design (i.e., a model augmented with attacks) using model checking and identifying the trace of events leading to a security failure (i.e., counterexamples). 2) We propose a model-based methodology for detecting attacks at runtime. We develop a monitor and an algorithm that checks whether the behavior of the system at runtime is consistent with a reference model. We call the reference model as Tiny Digital Twin and it is employed within the monitor. We create Tiny Digital Twin by automatically reducing the state space of the Timed Rebeca model while preserving the trace equivalence. 3) We provide a formal foundation for our abstraction method and present a theory to map the state space of a Timed Rebeca model into a Labeled Transition System (LTS). This is achieved by defining a Concise Rebeca Timed Transition System (CRTTS) and implementing a function to convert CRTTS into an LTS. We use mCRL2 ltsconvert tool to abstract away non-observable actions from LTS while preserving trace equivalence between the original model and its abstracted version. 4) To validate the effectiveness of our attack detection method we simulate various attacks. Subsequently, we systematically model and check complex coordinated attacks. The applicability of CRYSTAL is demonstrated in revealing malicious behavior within different case studies including Pneumatic Control System (PCS), Temperature Control System (TCS), and Secure Water Treatment System (SWaT).

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  • Public defence: 2024-06-11 10:00 Gamma, Västerås
    Drennan, Todd
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Global Consumer Online Purchase Intention: A Relationship Approach2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today's rapidly evolving digital landscape, understanding global consumer online purchase intention is paramount for firms to thrive in international markets. This dissertation investigates the evolving relationships between buyers and sellers online, focusing on the online purchase intention of consumers labeled as "global consumers". The purpose of this dissertation is to provide insights into and broaden the knowledge of the global consumer online purchase intention. Employing a relationship marketing approach, this dissertation examines the effects of various cues and relational factors on global consumer online purchase intention. This dissertation is comprised of five papers, each contributing insight into the complexities of global consumer online purchase intention. Paper Ⅰ introduces a methodology for collecting large-scale, multinational data on global consumer online purchase intention. Papers Ⅱ–Ⅴ employ this methodology to investigate the impact of specific cues and relational factors on online purchase intention. Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, including focus group interviews, standardized surveys, and experiments, this dissertation reveals a nuanced interplay between cues, relational factors, and online purchase intention. The findings highlight the importance of building strong consumer-brand relationships, establishing credible product ratings, strategically aligning brand perceptions, and fostering trust in online retailers to enhance global consumer purchase intention. Thus, this dissertation contributes to relationship marketing research by offering a different perspective on online global consumers and demonstrating the applicability of a relationship approach in understanding online purchase intention on a global scale. The insights gained have significant practical implications, emphasizing the need for online retailers to prioritize relationship building, personalization, ethical practices, and positive online experiences to succeed in the competitive global marketplace.

    The full text will be freely available from 2024-05-21 08:00
  • Public defence: 2024-06-17 13:15 Gamma, Västerås
    Latifaj, Malvina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Systematic Development of Collaborative Blended Modeling Environments2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative model-driven software engineering addresses the complexities of developing software systems by prioritizing models as core artifacts and leveraging the collective expertise of diverse stakeholders. To effectively realize this approach, the employed modeling environments must be equipped with features that support and enhance collaboration. These environments should, among other capabilities, provide support for multiple notation types, enabling stakeholders to engage with models using their preferred notation or the notation most appropriate for their tasks. Additionally, they should offer multiple views and perspectives that allow stakeholders to interact with pertinent information only, and implement access control mechanisms to ensure information security. However, the adoption of these features can be challenging, partly because of their resource-intensive and tedious development nature, as well as the necessity for continuous updates to keep up with the evolution of modeling languages. This doctoral thesis proposes a model-driven approach to address this challenge by facilitating the development of blended modeling environments featuring multiple views and ensuring modeled information security. The proposed framework leverages automation to reduce the manual effort and expertise traditionally required for i) the provision of synchronization mechanisms between graphical and textual notations for blended modeling, ii) the provision of synchronization mechanisms between view models and base model in multi-view modeling, and iii) the consistent definition and enforcement of access permissions. This research, therefore, lowers the barriers to adopting these collaborative features by facilitating their development and evolution in face of changes to underlying modeling languages. 

    The full text will be freely available from 2024-05-27 08:00